As promised, here’s the part of The List where we talk about soldiers, soldiers-turned-rebels, rebels, activists, activists-turned-rebels, and those who were killed because of their political beliefs a.k.a. martyrs. Our “Listers” will be listed in alphabetical order.
1. Military Chief in Jolo. Running after extremist rebels/terrorist groups is not an easy task but this has been the main job of Brig. Gen. Alexander Aleo who, as military chief in Jolo, has led the government’s campaigns against terrorist groups such as the Abu Sayyaf. More here.
2. Head of the Philippine Marines. Brig. Gen. Nelson Allaga’s appointment as Marine commandant in February 2006 sparked some protest among junior officers but he ably defused the tension. A positive article about the general here. And a negative one here. (Told you, we give you both sides of the coin here at From the Boondocks ha ha.).
3. Activist martyr. Rafael Markus Bangit, coordinator for the elderly program of the Cordillera Peoples Alliance, was killed June 2006. He joins an ever growing list of leftist-activists nationwide who have been murdered for their political convictions. More here.
4. Human rights worker. In 1992, Chris Batan of the Task Force Detainees of the Philippines was documenting human rights abuse cases during the Marcos era when he was killed by members of the para-military group, Citizens Armed Forces Geographical Unit or CAFGU. More here.
5. Idealist soldier or coup plotter? 1Lt. Patricio Bumidang is alleged to be a member of the Magdalo group of junior military officers who exposed corruption in the armed forces and who sort of conducted a made-for-television-coup that was not successful. Bumidang and his co-officers (co-plotters) are now on trial for rebellion. More here and here.
6. Activist-turned-rebel. Jennifer “Maria” Cariño, was a student activist during the Marcos era who eventually joined the New Peoples Army. Her name, along with the names of other Filipinos who fought the Marcos dictatorship, is now inscribed in the Wall of Remembrance at EDSA corner Quezon Ave in Quezon City. A classmate writes a very interesting article about Jennifer, make sure you read it here. [Update: The link provided might not work which is unfortunate because the story about Jennifer was beautifully written. Thanks — 19 June 2007.]
7. Fighter pilot. Lt. Col. Ildefonso Dulinayan of the Philippine Air Force was a member (then eventually team leader in 1978) of the Air Force’s aerobatic team that wowed crowds in air shows all over the country. He was elected governor of Ifugao in the late 1990s. More about him here.
8. Activist, leader, rebel. Pedro Dungoc. Along with Macli-ing Dulag, Pedro Dungoc was in the forefront of the struggle against the construction of the Chico River Dam. Dungoc is the third person from the Cordilleras, the others being Dulag and Jennifer Cariño, whose name is immortalized in the Wall of Remembrance. More about him here.
9. Head of the Philippine Coast Guard. Rear Admiral Arthur Gosingan took over the helm of the Philippine Coast Guard in November 2003. He belongs to PMA Class of 1975 and was given the Navy Sword Award for being at the top of his class. Read more about his achieverments here and here.
10. Hero of the Lamitan siege/alleged coup plotter. Captain Ruben Guinolbay is a much decorated Scout Ranger whose gallantry in the military’s campaigns against the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group has been widely praised both within and outside military circles. Now he is on trial for his alleged participation in an alleged coup led by Scout Rangers in February 2006. More about him here and here.
11. Young military hero. Lt. Benedicto Lippad, number three in his class (PMA Sanghaya Class of 2000), died when his troop was ambushed by Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) rebels in Lanao del Norte. He was buried on June 12, 2003(Independence Day) and his hometown lowered the Philippine flag to half-mast in his honor. More stories here and here.
12. Missing but remembered. Daniel Ngayaan is another Kalinga leader whose activism was spurred during the Marcos dictatorship. He was abducted in 1987 and no one has yet come forward to reveal what happened to him. A marker has built to been built to remind us of his heroism. More here.